A loaf of bread made in the first century AD, which was discovered at Pompeii, preserved for centuries in the volcanic ashes of Mount Vesuvius. The markings visible on the top are made from a Roman bread stamp, which bakeries were required to use in order to mark the source of the loaves, and to prevent fraud. (via Ridiculously Interesting)
(sigh) I’ve seen these before, but this one’s particularly beautiful.
I feel like I’m supposed to be marveling over the fact that this is a loaf of bread that’s been preserved for thousands of years, and don’t get me wrong, that’s hella cool. But honestly, I’m mostly struck by the unexpected news that “bread fraud” was apparently once a serious concern.
Bread Fraud was a huge thing, Bread was provided to the Roman people by the government - bakers were given grain to make the free bread, but some of them stole the government grain to use in other baked goods and would add various substitutes, like sawdust or even worse things, to the bread instead. So if people complained that their free bread was not proper bread, the stamp told them exactly whose bakery they ought to burn down.
Bread stamps continued to be used at least until the Medieval period in Europe. Any commercially sold bread had to be stamped with an official seal to identify the baker to show that it complied with all rules and regulations about size, price, and quality. This way, rotten or undersized loaves could be traced back to the baker. Bakers could be pilloried, sent down the streets in a hurdle cart with the offending loaf tied around their neck, fined, or forbidden to engage in baking commercially ever again in that city. There are records of a baker in London being sent on a hurdle cart because he used an iron rod to increase the weight of his loaves, and another who wrapped rotten dough with fresh who was pilloried. Any baker hurdled three times had to move to a new city if they wanted to continue baking.
If you have made bread, you are probably familiar with a molding board. It’s a flat board used to shape the bread. Clever fraudsters came up with a molding board that had a little hole drilled into it that wasn’t easily noticed. A customer would buy his dough by weight, and then the baker would force some of that dough through the hole, so they could sell and underweight loaf and use the stolen dough to bake new loafs to sell. Molding boards ended up being banned in London after nine different bakers were caught doing this. There were also instances of grain sellers withholding grain to create an artificial scarcity drive up the price of that, and things like bread.
Bread, being one of the main things that literally everyone ate in many parts of the world, ended up with a plethora of rules and regulations. Bakers were probably no more likely to commit fraud than anyone else, but there were so many of them, that we ended up with lots and lots of rules and records of people being shifty.
Check out Fabulous Feasts: Medieval Cookery and Ceremony by Madeleine Pelner Cosman for a whole chapter on food laws as they existed in about 1400. Plus the color plates are fantastic.
'The bombing time was terrible. I was young and didn't understand why the Americans were bombing us. I thought maybe they didn't know we were there, that we should tell them so that they could drop their bombs where they wouldn't kill anybody.'
- Laith, 11, who left Iraq in 2005 and lives as a refugee in Jordan (Children of War: Iraqi Children Speak, 2009)
fun fact: the reason that the plural of goose is geese but the plural of moose is not meese is because goose derives from an ancient germanic word undergoing strong declension, in the pattern of foot/feet and tooth/teeth, wherein oo is mutated to ee. however ‘moose’ is a native american word added to the english lexicon only ~400 years ago, and lacks the etymological reason to be pluralized in that way.
Oh baby. Keep talking dirty to me.
Technology then and now
at first i thought it was the same number then I noticed it said GB and damn
As one of the tech review magazines said a few years ago when the first 32 GB micro SD cards came out, “At last it is possible for a single human being to accidentally swallow all of the data collected by the Apollo Program.”
now that is a review
The Last Japanese Mermaids
For nearly two thousand years, Japanese women living in coastal fishing villages made a remarkable livelihood hunting the ocean for oysters and abalone, a sea snail that produces pearls. They are known as Ama. The few women left still make their living by filling their lungs with air and diving for long periods of time deep into the Pacific ocean, with nothing more than a mask and flippers.
In the mid 20th century, Iwase Yoshiyuki returned to the fishing village where he grew up and photographed these women when the unusual profession was still very much alive. After graduating from law school, Yoshiyuki had been given an early Kodak camera and found himself drawn to the ancient tradition of the ama divers in his hometown. His photographs are thought to be the only comprehensive documentation of the near-extinct tradition in existence
Aboriginal rock art of the Algaihgo Fire Woman at the Kakadu National Park, NT, Australia.
Notice her four arms, and the banksias (a native Australian plant) attached to her head.
The Australian National Parks & Wildlife Service provide the following description of the image depicted on a sign near the site:
Algaihgo (pronounced Al-guy-go), the fire woman, is one of the First People or Nayuhunggi who created the world. She planted the yellow banksias in the woodlands and used their smouldering flowers to carry fire.
Stories about Algaihgo tell how she hunted rock possum, her favourite food, with the help of the dingoes which travelled with her.
People are afraid of Algaihgo because she kills and burns people, and avoid her Djang (sacred site) on the Arnhem Land Plateau where her spirit lives.
Photos taken by Hansjoerg Morandell.
"Listen, I know that the most famous assassin of the French Revolution was a woman but that’s too much work just copy and paste four dudes."
This is what the cast of a Stonewall movie should look like, not what’s being cast.
These are just a few of the beautiful, incredible, unbelievably brave people who made our movement possible. Pay respect to the people who were involved in the Stonewall Riots by boycotting this planned whitewashed film about cis gay men and drag queens because it’s false and disrespectful to the trans women of color and the other extremely important marginalized groups that sparked the movement we have and benefit from today. Don’t allow this movie to further perpetuate the whitewashing of history and lies about who really was fighting in the Stonewall Riots.
TRANS WOMEN OF COLOR SUCH AS MARSHA P. JOHNSON AND SYLVIA RIVERA PLAYED A CRUCIAL ROLE IN THE STONEWALL RIOT AND TO DENY THAT IS TO DENY HISTORY.
THIS INSTRUMENT IS CALLED THE KALIMBA. THIS IS FATE.
I HAD NO IDEA WHAT A KALIMBA LOOKED LIKE UNTIL JUST THIS SECOND IM BLOWN AWAY
I had one of these growing up and I was such shit at it I literally have never heard one used for anything other than plonky, labored renditions of ‘twinkle twinkle little star’ in my living room. This is gorgeous.
I feel that things like this are posted so often with no historical information and I think that’s pretty damaging even if it’s unintentional. It just contributes to the erasure of non-western societies and their cultures.
The Kalimba is an African instrument common throughout Sub-Saharan Africa and it’s also known as the “sansa” and “mbira”. It was typically played while walking by traveling “griots” who keep the history of the tribe or village and for entertainment purposese. And get this: the wood or bamboo-tiled instruments were first invented 3000 years ago! And the metal-tiled ones appeared in the Zambezi River Valley 1,300 years ago. There’s so much history behind this instrument and it’s an injustice to the those whose culture it originates from to post about it and never once mention them. Anyway this is just tiny bit of the history I felt like adding from the wiki page, and the entire thing it very interesting so I’d encourage you to read it all!
Doll Tor stone circle. Photo by Barry Teague.
Noticed that the other Doll Tor picture is popular. Here’s my favourite.
click on the link it takes you to a really amazing website
Welcome to Derinkuyu, an underground city that once housed up to 20,000 people. In the Cappadocia region, famous for its cave dwellings and underground villages, Derinkuyu stands out for sheer size and complexity. Locals began digging in the 500s BCE. The city consists of over 600 doors, each of which can be closed from the inside. Each floor could be closed off as well. And just to make attacking completely impossible, the entire city was deliberately built without any logic. Its maze-like layout makes navigating the city nightmarish for unfamiliar invaders.
The most impressive naval career of all the female sailors is that of William Brown, a black woman who spent at least twelve years on British warships, much of this time in the extremely demanding role of captain of the foretop. A good description of her appeared in London’s Annual Register in September 1815: “She is a smart, well-formed figure, about five feet four inches in height, possessed of considerable strength and great activity; her features are rather handsome for a black, and she appears to be about twenty-six years of age.” The article also noted that “in her manner she exhibits all the traits of a British tar and takes her grog with her late messmates with the greatest gaiety.”
Brown was a married woman and had joined the navy around 1804 following a quarrel with her husband. For several years she served on the Queen Charlotte, a three-decker with 104 guns and one of the largest ships in the Royal Navy. Brown must have had nerve, strength, and unusual ability to have been made captain of the foretop on such a ship….The captain of the foretop had to lead a team of seamen up the shrouds of the foremast, and then up the shrouds of the fore-topmast and out along the yards a hundred feet or more above the deck….
At some point in 1815, it was discovered that Brown was a woman and her story was published in the papers, but this does not seem to have affected her naval career….What is certain is that Brown returned to the Queen Charlotte and rejoined the crew."
I Fought the Law
(In Alabama it is illegal to have an ice cream cone in your back pocket at all times.)
Isn’t that a waste. That stain will never come out and that ice cream looks pretty good. Fck you
it’s illegal because people used to put Ice cream in their back pockets to lure horses out of their pens and then they could say “I didn’t steal the horse it just followed me” and not get caught so it is illegal
"The Europeans are not yet willing to acknowledge that the world did not wait in darkness for them to bring the light, and that the history of Africa was already old when Europe was born."
An Indian woman, a Japanese woman, and a Syrian woman, all training to be doctors at Women’s Medical College of Philadelphia, 1880s. (Image courtesy Legacy Center, Drexel University College of Medicine Archives, Philadelphia, PA. Image #p0103) (x)
The Indian woman, Dr. Anandi Gopal Joshi, was the first Indian woman to earn a degree in Western medicine, and also believed to be the first Hindu woman to set foot on American soil.
The Japanese woman, Dr. Kei Okami, was the first Japanese woman to obtain a degree in Western Medicine.
The Syrian woman is Dr. Sabat Islambooly. Her name is spelled incorrectly on that photograph.
For those interested, here’s more information on other women of color who attended and graduated from Women’s Medical College of Philadelphia in the past, with a focus on the Japanese-American women they accepted during the US WW2 internment of Japanese-Americans.