missmindless
It took Adolf Hitler and his Nazi cohorts 12 years to round up and murder 6 million Jews, but their Teutonic cousins, the British, managed to kill almost 4 million Indians in just over a year, with Prime Minister Winston Churchill cheering from the sidelines. Australian biochemist Dr Gideon Polya has called the Bengal Famine a “manmade holocaust” because Churchill’s policies were directly responsible for the disaster. Bengal had a bountiful harvest in 1942, but the British started diverting vast quantities of food grain from India to Britain, contributing to a massive food shortage in the areas comprising present-day West Bengal, Odisha, Bihar and Bangladesh. Author Madhusree Mukerjee tracked down some of the survivors and paints a chilling picture of the effects of hunger and deprivation. In Churchill’s Secret War, she writes: “Parents dumped their starving children into rivers and wells. Many took their lives by throwing themselves in front of trains. Starving people begged for the starchy water in which rice had been boiled. Children ate leaves and vines, yam stems and grass. People were too weak even to cremate their loved ones.”
pocketcucco

odditiesoflife:

Amazing Ancient Ruins of the Pueblo People

Ancient Pueblo people were an ancient Native American culture centered on the present-day Four Corners area of the United States, comprising southern Utah, northeastern Arizona, northern New Mexico, and southwestern Colorado. Archaeologists still debate when this distinct culture emerged but the current consensus is around 12th century BC.

They lived in a range of structures, including pit houses, pueblos, and cliff dwellings designed so that they could lift entry ladders during enemy attacks, which provided security. The pictures above feature some of the amazing pueblos and cliff dwellings of these people. The most photographed ruin is the “House on Fire” (picture 1). This ruin, when captured at certain times of the day, resembles a dwelling on fire and is a favorite among photographers.

  • "House on Fire" ruin in Mule Canyon, South Fork, Utah
  • Petroglyph with the prehistoric symbol, flute player Kokopelli
  • Multistory dwellings at Bandelier. Rock wall foundations and beam holes and “cavates” carved into volcanic tuff remain from upper floors
  • Laguna Pueblo dwellers posing for a picture
  • Doorways, Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico
  • Casa Rinconada, Chaco Culture National Historical Park, New Mexico
  • Ancestral Pueblo ruins in Dark Canyon Wilderness, Utah
  • Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park

sources 1, 2, 3

alhoub
abluesforbrklyn:

play-the-game:

psilolysergicamine:

africa-will-unite:

urban-s0ul:

urban-s0ul:

I’ve been waiting for this..
1968 Olympic Black Power Salute. 

always reblog

Now we talking!

Historic.

they got their medals taken away because of thisand they dont give a shitand lets not forget the aussie in the greenhe had a pin on him in favor of equal rightslike everyone up there stood for peaceths shit is iconic

Our struggle.

abluesforbrklyn:

play-the-game:

psilolysergicamine:

africa-will-unite:

urban-s0ul:

urban-s0ul:

I’ve been waiting for this..

1968 Olympic Black Power Salute. 

always reblog

Now we talking!

Historic.

they got their medals taken away because of this
and they dont give a shit
and lets not forget the aussie in the green
he had a pin on him in favor of equal rights
like everyone up there stood for peace
ths shit is iconic

Our struggle.

game-overture
  • Ancient Egypt was not a mixed society.
  • Ancient Egypt was PITCHED BLACK until the 7th century AD, when Indo Aryans called Arabs invaded from Central Asia.
  • For 99 percent of Egyptian history, Egypt was as BLACK as Nigeria, as BLACK as Congo, and as BLACK as Senegal.
  • King Tut was a dark skinned black man,
  • Queen Tiye was a beautiful and EXTREMELY dark skinned woman.
  • Hatshepsut was also very very very dark skinned.
  • Even during the Ptolemaic period of Kemet, the Egyptians were primarily African.
  • The fact that the most advanced civilization of human history was composed primarily of Black People is the most annoying and frustrating thing to white supremacist historians today.
kooperfan
wellmanicuredman:

did-you-kno:

Source

let the record show that the first humans capable of imagination immediately invented furries

wellmanicuredman:

did-you-kno:

Source

let the record show that the first humans capable of imagination immediately invented furries

ancientart

ancientart:

The Dhamek Stupa of Sarnath, India.

The Archaeological Survey of India, and many alike, claim this to be the location where Buddha first encountered the five Parivajrakas and delivered the First Sermon.

Built in approximately 500 CE, the Dhamek Stupa is a huge cylindrically shaped stupa (Buddhist commemorative monuments which traditionally usually house sacred relics associated with Buddha), and is about 44m tall, with a diameter of 29m. Around it are 8 niches which are thought to have once contained images. Below these niches is a section of beautifully carved ornamentation, which remains partly preserved today, and highlights the high skill level of stone artisans of the Gupta period.  

A Chinese traveler who visited Sarnath in 638 CE by the name of Hiuen-Tsang records seeing the Dhamek Stupa, and observing over 1,500 priest there.

The first photo is by Dennis Jarvis, and remaining two, Ramón.

isayoldbean

art-of-swords:

Mamluk Knife with Decorated Scabbard

  • Dated: 14th - 16th century 
  • Measurements: overall length 21.5 cm; blade length 11 cm

The blade is made of watered steel decorated with three embedded coral beads and the inscription "The time of the reign of Sultan Malik Zahir". On the reverse of the blade reads, "Fly high, bird of distress and revenge, your rigor and fairness affirm human fate".

The knife has a square tapered handle of blue glass. The ivory scabbard is richly inlaid with mother of pearl, brass and stones, representing the heavens, with gilt silver fittings with garnets and turquoise.

Source: Copyright © 2014 Galerie Arcimboldo

bankotsedo
dancingspirals:

ironychan:

hungrylikethewolfie:

dduane:


A loaf of bread made in the first century AD, which was discovered at Pompeii, preserved for centuries in the volcanic ashes of Mount Vesuvius. The markings visible on the top are made from a Roman bread stamp, which bakeries were required to use in order to mark the source of the loaves, and to prevent fraud. (via Ridiculously Interesting)

(sigh) I’ve seen these before, but this one’s particularly beautiful.

I feel like I’m supposed to be marveling over the fact that this is a loaf of bread that’s been preserved for thousands of years, and don’t get me wrong, that’s hella cool.  But honestly, I’m mostly struck by the unexpected news that “bread fraud” was apparently once a serious concern.

Bread Fraud was a huge thing,  Bread was provided to the Roman people by the government - bakers were given grain to make the free bread, but some of them stole the government grain to use in other baked goods and would add various substitutes, like sawdust or even worse things, to the bread instead.  So if people complained that their free bread was not proper bread, the stamp told them exactly whose bakery they ought to burn down.

Bread stamps continued to be used at least until the Medieval period in Europe. Any commercially sold bread had to be stamped with an official seal to identify the baker to show that it complied with all rules and regulations about size, price, and quality. This way, rotten or undersized loaves could be traced back to the baker. Bakers could be pilloried, sent down the streets in a hurdle cart with the offending loaf tied around their neck, fined, or forbidden to engage in baking commercially ever again in that city. There are records of a baker in London being sent on a hurdle cart because he used an iron rod to increase the weight of his loaves, and another who wrapped rotten dough with fresh who was pilloried. Any baker hurdled three times had to move to a new city if they wanted to continue baking.
If you have made bread, you are probably familiar with a molding board. It’s a flat board used to shape the bread. Clever fraudsters came up with a molding board that had a little hole drilled into it that wasn’t easily noticed. A customer would buy his dough by weight, and then the baker would force some of that dough through the hole, so they could sell and underweight loaf and use the stolen dough to bake new loafs to sell. Molding boards ended up being banned in London after nine different bakers were caught doing this. There were also instances of grain sellers withholding grain to create an artificial scarcity drive up the price of that, and things like bread.
Bread, being one of the main things that literally everyone ate in many parts of the world, ended up with a plethora of rules and regulations. Bakers were probably no more likely to commit fraud than anyone else, but there were so many of them, that we ended up with lots and lots of rules and records of people being shifty.
Check out Fabulous Feasts: Medieval Cookery and Ceremony by Madeleine Pelner Cosman for a whole chapter on food laws as they existed in about 1400. Plus the color plates are fantastic.

dancingspirals:

ironychan:

hungrylikethewolfie:

dduane:

A loaf of bread made in the first century AD, which was discovered at Pompeii, preserved for centuries in the volcanic ashes of Mount Vesuvius. The markings visible on the top are made from a Roman bread stamp, which bakeries were required to use in order to mark the source of the loaves, and to prevent fraud. (via Ridiculously Interesting)

(sigh) I’ve seen these before, but this one’s particularly beautiful.

I feel like I’m supposed to be marveling over the fact that this is a loaf of bread that’s been preserved for thousands of years, and don’t get me wrong, that’s hella cool.  But honestly, I’m mostly struck by the unexpected news that “bread fraud” was apparently once a serious concern.

Bread Fraud was a huge thing,  Bread was provided to the Roman people by the government - bakers were given grain to make the free bread, but some of them stole the government grain to use in other baked goods and would add various substitutes, like sawdust or even worse things, to the bread instead.  So if people complained that their free bread was not proper bread, the stamp told them exactly whose bakery they ought to burn down.

Bread stamps continued to be used at least until the Medieval period in Europe. Any commercially sold bread had to be stamped with an official seal to identify the baker to show that it complied with all rules and regulations about size, price, and quality. This way, rotten or undersized loaves could be traced back to the baker. Bakers could be pilloried, sent down the streets in a hurdle cart with the offending loaf tied around their neck, fined, or forbidden to engage in baking commercially ever again in that city. There are records of a baker in London being sent on a hurdle cart because he used an iron rod to increase the weight of his loaves, and another who wrapped rotten dough with fresh who was pilloried. Any baker hurdled three times had to move to a new city if they wanted to continue baking.

If you have made bread, you are probably familiar with a molding board. It’s a flat board used to shape the bread. Clever fraudsters came up with a molding board that had a little hole drilled into it that wasn’t easily noticed. A customer would buy his dough by weight, and then the baker would force some of that dough through the hole, so they could sell and underweight loaf and use the stolen dough to bake new loafs to sell. Molding boards ended up being banned in London after nine different bakers were caught doing this. There were also instances of grain sellers withholding grain to create an artificial scarcity drive up the price of that, and things like bread.

Bread, being one of the main things that literally everyone ate in many parts of the world, ended up with a plethora of rules and regulations. Bakers were probably no more likely to commit fraud than anyone else, but there were so many of them, that we ended up with lots and lots of rules and records of people being shifty.

Check out Fabulous Feasts: Medieval Cookery and Ceremony by Madeleine Pelner Cosman for a whole chapter on food laws as they existed in about 1400. Plus the color plates are fantastic.